Some computers come with built-in chips that can perform encryption in hardware. This is very fast because those chips are optimised to execute this one task and performing encryption and decryption, and hashing in software is supposed to be slow.
This list does not include hardware random number generators (HWRNG).
AMD implements the AES instruction set in the same way as Intel AES-NI works.
Intel follows a different approach with no co-processor but processor instructions that can be executed from kernel and userspace.
The VIA Padlock co-processor was introduced with VIA C7 CPUs and is available in all of these and those of the VIA Neon Series.